Psycholinguistics & Neurolinguistics

Agrammatic dysgraphia classification and explanation

Agrammatic dysgraphia

Agrammatic dysgraphia is a repetitive writing error caused by the underdevelopment of the grammatical structure of the language. It is characterized by incorrect word formation, inflection by gender, cases, numbers, violation of the coordination and control of words in a sentence, inaccurate expression of thoughts, insufficient coherence of presentation. Agrammatic dysgraphia is detected by the results of an examination of oral speech, analysis of written works. Areas of correctional work include the expansion of vocabulary, the formation of grammatical categories, the development of a coherent statement. Agrammatic dysgraphia classification

General information

Agrammatic dysgraphia occurs in children with general speech underdevelopment, intellectual disability. According to research in the field of speech therapy, about half of older preschoolers have preconditions for the development of dysgraphia. However, in its pure form in school years, agrammatic dysgraphia is rarely diagnosed. Among second-graders, this form of writing disorder is detected in 5.6% of cases. It begins to manifest itself especially clearly from the 3rd grade when there is a transition from phonetic to the morphemic principle of writing.

Symptoms

The harbingers of this type of dysgraphia are multiple agrammatism in oral speech. The child incorrectly uses numbers, cases, prepositions, finds it difficult to tell a coherent story or retelling. Similar shortcomings are noted in writing.

At the vocabulary level, agrammatic dysgraphia is expressed in the incorrect spelling of endings when inflection by gender and numbers, declension by cases. Errors of prepositional control (“the girl is walking”), the coordination of the noun, and the adjective (“delicious lunch”) are revealed. Prepositions (“write on a notebook”) are used incorrectly, prefixes (collect – “take away”), suffixes (kittens – “kittens”) are replaced.

At the supply level, difficulties arise in constructing complex structures. The main clause changes places with a subordinate clause, sometimes it is omitted altogether or abbreviated. In a coherent text, logical and semantic sequences of presentation are violated. Agrammatic dysgraphia manifests itself to a greater extent when writing independently than when writing an auditory dictation or copying.

Classification

Grammatical mistakes can be made in words, sentences, and the whole story. Depending on this, agrammatism is divided into three groups:

  • morphological (expressive) – consist in the wrong declension of words, the use of prepositions;
  • syntactic – they are expressed in the omission of the main and secondary members of the sentence, the wrong word order within the sentence, difficulties in composing complex sentences;
  • Agrammatisms in coherent speech – is manifested by a fuzzy transmission of the plan, a violation of the sequence of sentences in the text, the illogicality of the narrative.

The reasons of Agrammatic dysgraphia

The disorder is based on perinatal, early postnatal damage, or functional immaturity of the areas of the brain responsible for oral speech and the implementation of writing. This leads to a depleted lexical stock, the lack of formation of the grammatical system of the native language. Agrammaticheskaya dysgraphia in children with alalia, dysarthria, mental retardation, mental retardation. A separate group is bilingual children.

Children threatened by the development of agrammatic dysgraphia in the preschool period are often registered with a pediatric neurologist for residual organic brain lesions of perinatal genesis. Often, they are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, insufficient development of fine motor skills, and school immaturity.

Diagnostics of Agrammatic dysgraphia

The task of identifying agrammatic dysgraphia is assigned to the speech therapist at the school speech center. For this, a survey of students is carried out at the beginning and end of the school year. Work with children at risk of developing dysgraphia should be started immediately. Diagnostic steps:

  • Analysis of oral speech. The level of speech development is assessed: the volume of vocabulary, the formation of the grammatical side of speech, the function of inflection, and word formation. A high risk of agrammatical dysgraphia is indicated by the diagnosis of OHP in preschool age.
  • Analysis of written works. The speech therapist studies the child’s notebooks in the Russian language, identifies specific agrammatism. Additionally, the skill of copying from printed and handwritten text, writing an auditory dictation, and independent writing is studied.
  • Psychologist consultation. In order to assess mental development, non-verbal intelligence is assessed using test methods (Raven’s matrices, Wechsler’s test, etc.). This is necessary to distinguish between agrammatic dysgraphia in children with normal mental development and writing disorders in children with mental retardation. Agrammatic dysgraphia classification

The prerequisites for impaired writing arise and can be noticed in a child long before the start of schooling. Risk factors for the emergence of agrammatic dysgraphia are:

  • minimal brain dysfunction ;
  • organic brain damage;
  • multilingualism in the family;
  • pedagogical neglect ;
  • impairment of memory, attention, cognitive activity;
  • latent left-handedness.

Pathogenesis of Agrammatic dysgraphia

Modern ideas about the mechanism of agrammatic dysgraphia associate it with the underdevelopment of the lexical, morphological, and syntactic system of the language. Grammatical errors – agrammatism – occur at the level of a word, sentence, or coherent text. The child does not have the skills of word formation and inflection, ideas about syntactic connections between the structural components of the sentence are not formed, text formation operations are violated.

The psycholinguistic theory of pathogenesis considers agrammatic dysgraphia as a consequence of a violation of internal programming and grammatical design of a speech utterance. The neuropsychological approach explains the writing disorder from the standpoint of a violation of the cerebral organization of speech activity: control and regulation of writing (frontal lobes), distinguishing grammatical forms by ear (temporal lobes), compilation and understanding of logical-grammatical structures (parieto-occipital lobes). Agrammatic dysgraphia classification

Complications

Students with agrammatical dysgraphia have poor grades in their native language. The decline in academic performance becomes especially noticeable towards the end of the 3rd – beginning of the 4th grade. Before that, the student may be good, but then the situation changes dramatically. Parents and teachers often accuse the student of laziness and lack of diligence. This fact further reduces the motivation for learning, provokes conflict behavior. Without speech therapy correction, elements of agrammatic dysgraphia can persist until high school.

Correction 

The main tasks of correctional speech therapy assistance are to eliminate all types of agrammatism, both orally and in writing. Training is organized with a gradual complication of the material. In the classroom for the elimination of dysgraphia, correction is carried out in parallel in several directions:

  • Work on the proposal. The study of the structure of the sentence, the assimilation of its main elements First, they work out simple two-part and widespread sentences, then more complex ones – complex-composed, complex subordinate ones. An effective technique is a use of reference graphic diagrams for parsing and drawing up sentences.
  • Work on inflection and word-formation. They pay attention to ways of changing nouns (by numbers, cases), adjectives (by genders, cases, numbers), verbs (by persons, genders, numbers). Learn the rules of control and word negotiation. Clarify the meanings of prepositions, the functions of prefixes and suffixes. Form the skills of the morphological analysis of the word.
  • Work on the text. The child is taught to highlight the main idea and theme of the story. Pay attention to the sequence of sentences and the consistency of the presentation. Independent work involves drawing up a story plan and a coherent text on a specific topic. The acquired grammatical skills are consolidated in various types of written speech. Agrammatic dysgraphia classification

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