Classification of parts of speech in English
Parts of speech in English are divided into independent and service parts. Classification of parts of speech in English with illustration
Independent parts of speech
Independent parts of speech are words that have independent lexical meaning (for example, “table” is a table. Pronouncing this word, you immediately get a clear idea of what it means).
- A noun ( noun ) is a part of speech that denotes an object, living beings, abstract concepts or phenomena. Answers the questions: “Who?”; “What?”.
- All nouns are divided into common nouns ( common all ), own ( Proper ), and concrete ( concrete ).
- There is also a classification in the countable and uncountable ( the Countable and uncountable nouns).
- The noun has the categories of gender ( gender), number ( number ), and case ( case ).
a flower, Henry, tea, time, money, water.
A pronoun ( pronoun ) is a part of speech that indicates an object or quality of an object, without naming it. Pronouns have categories of gender and number. There are several groups of pronouns in English:
- Personal and possessive (personal and reflexive ): he, his, his; she, her, hers, I, my, mine.
- Return ( reflexive ): myself, herself, Himself, by ourselves.
- Demonstrative ( demonstrative ): the this, That, Those, for These.
- Interrogative ( interrogative ): the who, what, the which, Whose, Whom.
- Attributive ( Defining ): every, all, each, everybody, everyone, to Both, an either, other, another.
- Indefinite and negative ( indefinite and negative ): some, the any, the no, none, one’s, many, much, little, few. Classification of parts of speech in English with illustration
- A verb ( verb ) is a part of speech that denotes an action or state. Depending on the meaning and role in the sentence, verbs are semantic ( notional ), auxiliary ( semi-auxiliary ), auxiliary ( auxiliary ).
- All English verbs are divided into regular and irregular.
run, must, be, paint, love, sleep.
- Adverb ( adverb ) – a part of speech that denotes the nature of the action and answers the questions: “How?”; “Where?”; “When?”; “Why?”; “How?” (How? Where? When? Why? In what manner?).
- Adverbs are also divided into groups: adverbs of place ( PLACE ), the time ( time ), modus operandi ( manner ), frequency ( frequency The ), degree ( degree ).
happily, well, badly, quickly, fast.
- Adjective ( adjective ) – this is the part of speech, indicating the object attribute, person or phenomenon.
- By the nature of the sign, all adjectives can be divided into qualitative ( qualitative ) and relative ( relative ).
- By the principle of word formation, they are simple ( simple ), derivatives ( derived ) and complex ( compound ).
- Also, adjectives have degrees of comparison: positive degree, comparative degree, and superlative degree.
beautiful, nice, tall, happy, big – bigger – the biggest, good – better – the best.
Service parts of speech
The service parts of speech play an auxiliary role and, as it were, “serve” independent parts of speech.
The auxiliary part of speech; connects words and can express completely different relationships. In English, there are prepositions for time, place, purpose, reasons, and others:
at, in, on, to, towards, under.
The auxiliary part of speech connects suggestions:
and, but, because, so
Do not refer to either official or independent parts of speech, since they have no meaning and do not serve independent parts of speech. They serve to convey feelings.
ah, eh, alas, er, hey, uhm, etc
Definite ( the ), indefinite ( a / an ) and zero (no article) – “zero article”.
Classification of parts of speech in English with illustration