The basic research or fundamental seeks knowledge of reality or phenomena of nature, to contribute to a society increasingly advanced time and better respond to the challenges of humanity. Examples of basic research
This type of research does not seek the practical application of its discoveries, but rather the increase of knowledge to answer questions or so that this knowledge can be applied in other investigations.
Research is a technique that has made it possible to modify theories or create different types of hypotheses in recent decades. Every day man tests his knowledge in order to increase his understanding in any area, be it scientific, social, psychological or philosophical.
The concept of basic research changed the way of conceiving the world, evolved techniques and became the fundamental pillar of study and wisdom.
Definition of basic research according to authors
Roberto Hernandez Sampieri
According to Roberto Hernández Sampieri, research is defined as “a set of systematic and empirical processes that is applied to the study of a phenomenon”. Examples of basic research
According to Ander-Egg, this concept is about “a reflective, systematic, controlled and critical procedure that aims to discover or interpret the facts and phenomena, relationships and laws of a certain field of reality (…) a search for facts, a way to know reality, a procedure to know partial truths, -or better-, to discover not partial falsehoods ”.
Kemmis and McTaggart
Kemmis and McTaggart in 1988 outlined this tool as “the process of reflection in a certain problem area, where you want to improve practice or personal understanding. The practitioner conducts a study to clearly define the problem and to specify a plan of action. Then, an evaluation is undertaken to verify and establish the effectiveness of the action taken ”. Examples of basic research
Zorrilla and Torres
Other authors such as Zorrilla and Torres define this concept as more scientific, since they define it as “the search for knowledge and truths that allow us to describe, explain, generalize and predict the phenomena that occur in nature and in society. It is a specialized phase of scientific methodology ”.
Maria Teresa Yurén
For her part, María Teresa Yurén explains that “research becomes science when theories have been built in it (…) Scientific research starts with questions and ends with the construction of very compact systems of ideas, namely, theories ”.
Characteristics of basic research
From the formulation of a hypothesis or research objective, data is collected within an established plan in an orderly and sequential manner.
Once collected, they are analyzed and interpreted to modify the theory and add new knowledge. In general, the methodology used is scientific. Examples of basic research
Research should be done in a methodical manner to ensure there is no bias on the part of the person conducting it.
The conclusions of the work should not be subjective impressions, based on the appreciation of the researcher as an individual.
The results should be based on the facts that have been observed and measured. There must be an objective interpretation. That is, describe the situation as it is. Any closure must be supported by the data collected.
Explaining the facts through words is usually a complex process, since it requires a language and a lexicon that is capable of describing in detail the entire procedure used.
Sometimes and depending on what type of research it is, more specialized terms can be used to help in the task of exposing the work. Examples of basic research
In this case, it must be taken into account that only people who handle those words will be able to understand it. Experts in the field recommend being the most exact with the narrative.
One of the most important parts of the investigation is the hypothesis.
Sampieri conceptualizes them as a thesis of “what we are looking for or trying to prove and they can be defined as tentative explanations of the phenomenon under investigation formulated as propositions”.
A hypothesis may or may not be true, but the way in which they were verified must be stated in the text. According to this concept, thanks to these assumptions, feasibility and verification can be tested.
Sometimes the thesis can be wrong, but the methodology must point to a new theory that is more in line with reality.
Sampieri also outlines some peculiarities of the hypothesis: it must refer to a social situation and the variables must be precise, understandable and concrete.
In addition, there must be a clear relationship between the variables and the hypothesis, and it must have references of reality that establish a connection between the thesis and its variables.
Based on real facts
An investigation arises from a problem that is part of the reality of a society. Examples of basic research
At first, the practitioner may have an idea of the conclusions of the trial he is conducting. However, the conclusions must be established under a verifiable method.
In pure studies, no room should be left for personal interpretation or subjectivity, despite the fact that the person who performs it is a subject and, therefore, is loaded with their own opinions. Therefore, there are specialized techniques in data analysis.
Restrictions of a Research
In some cases there may be a restriction when using the chosen methodology. When choosing a study, it is also necessary to analyze what limitations the subject has, either due to lack of information or for some other reason.
Experts in methodology affirm that a limitation consists of an aspect of the problem that cannot be studied for a good cause.
When faced with this situation, the researcher must argue very well why it is not possible to go further.
They refer to limits or frontiers of how far this work can go and this notion will depend on the objectives that are proposed. Examples of basic research
It should also be taken into account that there are other types of prohibitions that are more related to the research as such or to the researcher himself, rather than to the problem.
For example, the lack of financial resources or time are situations that are exclusively linked to the subject.
This should not be confused with constraints, which are external factors that serve as obstacles to development and are beyond the investigator’s hands.
Examples of basic research
Functioning of the human brain
This is a classic case of pure, basic research. Scientists are constantly delving deeper into the functioning of the human being with the aim of answering unanswered questions.
They especially seek to evaluate how to promote rationing, understand how man’s relationship with his environment is and help eliminate conditions inherent to the brain.
Using drosophila fruit flies , researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in the United States developed a method to map the brain. Examples of basic research
Thus, in an easy way, neural connections and the flow of communications could be seen in real time within live flies, helping to understand the neural circuits within the human brain.
Sociology and psychology are also sources of research. Understanding what is the behavior of man before certain and certain moments is a genuine concern for many.
According to the Laboratory of Computational Social Neuroscience at the University of California, Los Angeles, people who are friendly with each other have similar neural activity patterns.
This indicates that similarity favors social cohesion, empathy and collective action.
Impact of technology on everyday life
The impact of technology is a very common area of study. With each innovation, professionals evaluate how this new tool can change the planet and society. Examples of basic research
Much has been said about the environmental consequences of the production of certain artifacts, but the consequences for humans are also being analyzed.
For example, in a recent publication commissioned by British Airways, a survey revealed a number of everyday tasks that have been replaced by the rise of technology.
The survey of two thousand people said to carry a portable CD player, have an encyclopedia and be able to remember memory phone numbers are actions that are in the past thanks to the advancement of devices such as smartphones.
Consequences of consuming certain foods
Health is another market that offers scientists an innumerable universe of hypotheses to investigate.
The care of the human being, and the cure and prevention of diseases constitute a study objective of many professionals who seek to improve the quality of life of man.
In research that was published in the journal Cell Metabolim , foods and beverages that are high in sugar are processed primarily in the small intestine and not in the liver, as previously thought.
This is in addition to the numerous studies that indicate that the consumption of sugar is harmful to the liver and that its intake in excess produces obesity, increases insulin resistance and creates the conditions for the onset of diabetes. Examples of basic research