Definitions

Existentialism definition/Sartre’s Existentialism/atheist existentialism

Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine centered on the analysis of existence and the way in which human beings exist in the world. It seeks to find meaning in life through unconditional freedom, choice and personal responsibility. Existentialism definition

According to this philosophical current, human beings exist first and then each individual spends his life changing his essence or nature.

This philosophical trend that emerged and developed in Europe between the two world wars (1918-1939), is characterized by focusing its analysis on existence, understood not as fact or fact of being, but as a mundane individual reality. Existentialism definition

While it represents a humanist reaction against all forms of alienation, existentialism has an extensive series of precursors: Socrates, St. Augustine, Maine de Bitan, etc. But, in a restricted sense, the origin of existentialism goes back to Kierkegaard, who, in opposition to the Hegelian speculative philosophy, projects a philosophy according to which the subject is vitally involved in its reflection and is not limited to an abstract objectification of reality. In view of this, he defends the irreducibility of human existence in relation to any idealizing or objectifying attempt.

Sartre’s Existentialism

The main representative of atheist existentialism is Jean-Paul Sartre , having published significant works such as L’Existentialisme est un Humanisme (“Existentialism is a Humanism”) of 1946 and L’Être et Le Néant (The Being and Nothingness) of 1943 .

According to Sartre, existence precedes essence, that is, it first exists and then determines its essence, through its actions and way of living life. Thus, atheistic existentialism was contrary to Christian existentialism, because man was responsible for defining his essence and not God. Existentialism definition

atheist existentialism

Existentialism developed in two directions: one atheist and one Christian. Atheist existentialism declares that if there is no God, all universal foundation disappears, which gives rise to moral subjectivity. A feeling of anguish then emerges that reveals human frailty, its unique responsibility for any act and the need to guide free action towards an individual self-project or social commitment. Existentialism definition

Philosophical existentialism exerted a great influence on theology (R. Bultmann), on literature (A. Camus), and on psychiatry (Binswanger).

Christian existentialism

Christian existentialism focuses on communion and interpersonal love as a means of a moral transcendence of absolute presence. It insists on defending an anthropological perspective, although it does not admit atheistic immanentism. It is represented by K. Barth, G. Marcel and K. Jaspers. Existentialism definition

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