Hyperbaton is a figure of speech used to alter the natural or usual order of words in a sentence. The word hyperbaton comes from the Latin hyperbaton , in turn derived from the Greek ὑπερβατόν (hyperbainein), which means “to go above order”. The Latin word for this figure is Transpositio . Hyperbaton examples
The hyperbaton is used mainly in literary texts (almost always in poetry) to emphasize certain elements of the sentence and to give the text stylistic beauty or a greater expressiveness and intensity.
An example of hyperbaton could be: “The pale girl’s docile body lies there” (the natural order would be: “The pale girl’s docile body lies there”).
The natural order of a sentence is subject + predicate . When the syntactic order of the elements of a sentence is altered, what is sought is to emphasize a particular element (in the case “Here you sit you”, for example, the place “here” is emphasized, and the natural order would be ” you sit here ”).
Hyperbaton functions Hyperbaton examples
The hyperbaton has literary and everyday uses. It began to be used in the Spanish Baroque during the seventeenth century, and the very nature of this literary movement admitted the indiscriminate and excessive use of adjectives, ellipsis, metaphor, periphrasis and hyperbaton, all of them rhetorical figures.
In Spain, the Baroque coincides with the so-called “Golden Age” (which spans more than a century), with authors such as Miguel de Cervantes (author of Don Quijote de La Mancha ), Garcilaso de la Vega, Luis de Góngora, Lope de Vega, Francisco de Quevedo or Pedro Calderón de La Barca, among many others. Hyperbaton examples
However, it continued to be used well into the 19th century by poets such as Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, Rubén Darío, Amado Nervo, among many others, and by poets of the 20th century.
When used in poetic language, the intention can go towards the emphasis of an image or metaphor or also to adapt a verse to a certain rhyme.
In the Baroque, the imitation of the syntactic structure of Latin was styled to ennoble or embellish an everyday expression, and thus distinguish it from popular usage or speech. In this sense, it was used to give an expression more elegance or stylistic beauty.
Everyday uses Hyperbaton examples
In everyday language, hyperbaton is used to emphasize an idea or word within the sentence. In the example “When I tell you it is, and not before”, the emphasis is placed on the adverb When , that is, on the temporal element of the sentence, and for that reason the order changes: “It is when I tell you and not before”.
Hyperbaton is also widely used in oral language: “the cake that we ate was made by my mother and it is delicious” (we ate the cake that my mother made and it is delicious).
There are also some very common twists in the Spanish language, such as “A Dios gracias” (thank God), “if I remember correctly” (if I remember correctly), “do can be done” (it can be done), “gracias a thousand “(a thousand thanks),” I see it badly “(I see it badly),” I believe that also / neither “(I also / neither do I).
Examples of hyperbaton
- Restless, the dog from one side to the other ran from the patio (The restless dog ran from one side of the patio to the other).
- In the square, the girls happily play in the morning (Girls play happily in the square in the morning).
- It seems a lie what you have told about that man (It seems a lie what you have told about that man). Hyperbaton examples
- For me to go to the Moon, it will take not one life but three, at least, and money in such an amount that I can pay a ticket (For me to go to the Moon, it will take at least three lives, and not one, and that amount money that a ticket can pay).
- I also think the same (I also think the same).
- When the student wants to present the exam, we will be at your command (When the student wants to present the exam, we will be at your command).
- Thank God for allowing me to see what my eyes are seeing (Thank God for allowing me to see what my eyes are seeing).
- If I remember correctly, that unhappy event filled my people with bitterness (If I remember correctly, that unhappy event filled my people with bitterness).
- All day we play, and tired we go to bed at dusk (We play all day and go to bed tired at dusk).
- In the cradle of hunger / my child was. / With onion blood / He was breastfed (My child was in the cradle of hunger, he was breastfed with onion blood), Miguel Hernández.
- Your kisses and your tears I had in my mouth (I had your kisses and your tears in my mouth), Rubén Darío.
- He put the poet in his verses / all the pearls of the sea (The poet put all the pearls of the sea in his verses), Rubén Darío.
- As long as the heart and head / battling go on; / as long as there is hope and memories, / there will be poetry! (As long as the heart and the head continue to battle; as long as there is hope and memories, there will be poetry!), Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer.
- The dark swallows will return / their nests will hang on your balcony (The dark swallows will hang their nests on your balcony), Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer.
- He who only changes his place, and not life and customs never improves his state (Whoever changes only his place, and not life and customs, never improves his state), Francisco de Quevedo.
- He asked the room’s niece for the keys (He asked the niece for the room’s keys), Miguel de Cervantes. Hyperbaton examples
- Be brief in your reasoning, that there is none willing if it is long (Be brief in your reasoning, that if it is long, none is willing), Miguel de Cervantes.
- The roses got up early to bloom, / and to grow old they bloomed; / cradle and grave in a button they found (The roses got up early to bloom, and they bloomed to grow old; in a button they found cradle and grave), Pedro Calderón de La Barca.
- And thus, full of modesty, / you will see the oldest / trying to be the most / and to appear the least (And thus you will see the oldest, full of modesty, trying to be the most and to appear the least), Calderón de La Barca.
- The king dreams that he is king, and lives / with this deception commanding, / arranging and governing (The king dreams that he is king and lives commanding, arranging and governing with this deception), Pedro Calderón de La Barca. Hyperbaton examples