Definitions

Imperialism definition/Characteristics/American imperialism/Neocolonialism

Imperialism is a policy of territorial, cultural and economic expansion and domination by a dominant nation over others . Imperialism definition

The first examples of imperialism as a policy of territorial expansion are Ancient Egypt (the Hittite state), Macedonia, Greece and the Roman Empire. Later, in the Middle Ages, the Turks and Islam were great imperialist powers.

The European imperialism showed its strength to dominate many countries, particularly in Africa and Asia.

A characteristic of imperialist countries is that their domination over another country was justified by three explanations: Imperialism definition

  • Ethnocentrism : which indicated that some peoples were superior to others;
  • Racism : that believed humans are divided into races and that one is superior to the others;
  • Social Darwinism : a misinterpretation of the theory of evolution, which explained the power of the strongest over the weakest thanks to natural selection.

The imperialist countries sought to achieve three things:

  • Feedstock
  • Consumer market
  • Cheap work force.

At the end of the 19th century, the imperialist countries launched a race for global conquest, which unleashed rivalry between them and materialized the main reason for the First World War, starting the new imperialist era.

World War I ended with German and Italian imperialism, but gave rise to the struggle for the conquest of markets and a new type of imperialism: ideological and class imperialism . This kind of imperialism was one of the origins of World War II. When World War II ended, colonial imperialism lost strength, thanks to the political liberation of the former colonies. Imperialism definition

The study of neo-imperialism was carried out by English and French economists in the beginning of the 19th century. At that time, one imperialist country was one that economically dominated the other, and in this way the capitalization of imperialist nations gradually expanded.

Characteristics of Imperialism

  • State seeks its expansion, mainly from the economic submission of other nations;
  • Dominant state exerts political, cultural or economic influence over others, whether formally or informally;
  • Based on ethnocentric ideas and social Darwinism (superiority of the dominant people over the dominated ones);
  • Process of expansion of European powers;
  • Industrial capital merged with financial capital;

American imperialism

American Imperialism (referring to the United States of America) is a notion related to the military, cultural, economic and political influence that this country exerts in the world today. According to this notion, the United States wields that power in an imperialist way. Imperialism definition

The concept of American imperialism had its origins when the United States, at the end of the 19th century, won the Mexican-American War, joining the states of Texas, New Mexico, California and Arizona to its territory.

At that time, the country had a clear policy of expansion, and President Theodore Roosevelt encouraged expansion into the Caribbean and Pacific, thus becoming a world-class power.

The United States has exercised economic and political influence in the rest of the world since the 19th century. However, thanks to a severe economic crisis in the 21st century, American influence has diminished.

Difference between Imperialism and Neocolonialism

Contemporary imperialism can also be called neocolonialism , as it has many similarities with the regime in force between the 15th and 19th centuries, colonialism. Imperialism definition

As said, Imperialism is the policy of expansion and territorial or cultural and economic domination of one nation over another, and it took place at the time of the Second Industrial Revolution. However, under colonialism, colonized countries lost their sovereignty and political control and were annexed to the dominant country.

In the case of imperialism, there is an influence exerted formally or informally, politically or economically, and there is not always the annexation of the country that receives the influence.

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