The ability to speak is a distinctive and enigmatic characteristic of the human species. Despite this, since the analysis of the principles that govern speech constitute an essential component of linguistic activity, the production of language has been a little known process. Language production definition
The reason is in the difficulty of using experimental methods. Thus, the researcher addresses a process that is only observable in the last phase. It cannot control variables of influence on the input (ideas, beliefs, etc.), nor restrict types of response to the subject, without limiting the validity of its conclusions. In any case, there is an output (the chain of sounds that make up speech) that is observable and measurable. Language production definition
THREE TYPES OF PROCESSES INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF THE LANGUAGE Language production definition
1-Psychological / cognitive: (horizontal mental faculties)
3-Communicative/instrumental Language production definition
Phases or generic stages of language production.
Levelt proposes a cognitive model of the production process. According to him, three phases or components of processing are distinguished
- Planning or conceptualization phase: subjects select the communicative content of their message. These are activities of an intentional nature, although not necessarily conscious. The result is the development of an information package called a prelinguistic message. This phase occurs in the conceptualizer. Language production definition
- Linguistic coding or formulation phase: the prelinguistic message is translated into a linguistic format. It involves the use of a language and a grammar. It requires the progressive specification of the structural units (phrases, words, etc.) that will intervene in the locution until configuring the phonetic plan or representation of the ordered series of linguistic units that make up the sentence. The result of this phase is the phonetic plan or internal speech.
- Peripheral processes or articulation: not necessary for internal language. The linguistic representations that make up the phonetic plan are translated into a code or motor plan that sets in motion the sequence of movements of the muscular structures involved in the production of language. The motor performance of these acts is called speech production.
The model also contemplates a feedback loop through the speech understanding system, which influences the conceptualizer. Feedback can arise from the phonetic plan or internal speech, and from overt speech, hearing systems come into play.