Held during the period from 1860 to 1900, this stage of the Industrial Revolution is marked above all by the accession of countries such as France, Russia, Italy, Germany and the United States, the latter two becoming major industrial powers.
Another important point of this phase is the emergence of electricity and oil , two factors that boosted the development of industries and other areas such as chemistry and transport.
After the first phase of the Industrial Revolution, the search for discoveries and innovations was intense, which made life easier for human beings, making the countries that did not carry out the revolution dependent on the more advanced ones. Second Industrial Revolution summary
Features of the Second Industrial Revolution
In this new stage, inventions such as electric energy, the use of the explosion engine through petroleum, synthetic dyes and the telegraph stimulated the exploration of new markets and the acceleration of the industrial rhythm.
With the increase in products that made human life easier, such as canned goods and other industrialized products, the whole world began to buy and consume.
This also boosted the industries even more, which made it possible to transport these products easier and faster, giving rise to means of transport such as ships and trains, which were widely used in the 19th century.
Industries also started the process of producing articles in series and having assembly lines in factories, which reduced the cost of products. Second Industrial Revolution summary
There was also an intensification of the rural exodus, as people increasingly went to cities because of the offer of jobs in industries, which increased the urban population and included the use of electric lighting in homes, streets and factories. .
In addition to electricity and the use of oil, other inventions marked this phase of the Industrial Revolution, such as:
- The new steel manufacturing processes, which allowed its use in civil construction;
- The invention of the incandescent light bulb;
- The expansion of the railways and the invention of the airplane and the automobile;
- The emergence of the means of communication, such as telephone, television, cinema;
- The emergence of antibiotics and vaccines, in addition to the expansion of knowledge about diseases and new surgical techniques. Second Industrial Revolution summary