Ethics is the branch of philosophy dedicated to understanding human behavior and what guides its conduct. The word ethics derives from the Greek term “ éthikos ” which means “ way of being ”. Types of ethics
The objective of ethics is to make social coexistence peaceful and fair, whether through collective or individual attitudes. Thus, ethics helps the individual to answer questions such as:
- I must?
- I can?
- I want to?
Types of ethics
Each type of ethics differs in terms of what is the basis for moral action.
Widely used and studied by the ancient Greeks, rationalist ethics explains that the individual is able to submit his will and determine his behavior through his reason .
In this case, rational thought is capable of understanding what is good, guiding attitudes, defining what is good or bad, right or wrong, whether for individual life or in society. Types of ethics
It is the type of ethics that analyzes and reflects the possible consequences of an action . Ethical behavior is based on its objective, on its purpose.
Theological or Christian ethics
Unlike rationalist ethics, theological ethics does not believe in reason as an aspect that controls human wills or attitudes. In this case, ethics is founded on faith .
Thus, ethical principles and guidance for actions are explained in the Bible, the holy book of Christianity .
The ethical person is the one who approaches God, following his commandments and teachings. In this case, the action contrary to ethics is also identified as a sin.
The ethics developed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant is based on the idea of duty (in Greek, deon ). In it, the individual is understood as fully capable of knowing how to act , and thus being able to act according to the duty .
Kant explains that duty comes before the concept of good or evil, what is right or wrong. Therefore, the individual must act ethically regardless of what he may receive as a result of his behavior. Duty is an a priori judgment, independent of experience. Types of ethics
Deontological ethics is linked to professional ethics , relating to sets of actions that a professional must perform in the exercise of their profession.
It is the kind of ethics that is based on the usefulness of moral action , for example, providing good for the greatest number of people .
John Stuart Mill, philosopher, defender of utilitarian ethics, defended that a good deed was the one capable of producing the maximum happiness possible for a larger number of people.
In this case, ethics is focused on practical attitudes where the individual must assess the situation before actually acting, thinking about how many people will benefit from their action.
ethics in philosophy
In philosophy, ethics, also known as moral philosophy , is the study that seeks to understand the motivations of human behavior, differentiating concepts such as good or bad, right or wrong.
Ethics is not limited to morality, which is generally understood as custom or habit, but seeks the foundation and principles on which morality is based. Types of ethics
Throughout the history of philosophy, many philosophers have devoted themselves to trying to explain what drives human behavior and what morals are based on.
It is also possible to associate ethics with certain common everyday behaviors or those related to a professional activity. This happens when we refer, for example, to the behavior of some professionals, such as: a doctor; journalist; attorney; businessperson; political, etc.
For these cases, it is quite common to hear expressions such as: medical ethics, journalistic ethics, business ethics and public ethics.
history of ethics
The origin of ethics takes place in Ancient Greece, in the period called the anthropological. Since Socrates, the focus of philosophy is no longer linked to the origins of nature and becomes a questioning of the way of being and human behavior.
For the Greek philosophers, ethics would be related to virtue and ways to achieve happiness.
Ethics in the Middle Ages
When the Middle Ages arrived, what stands out is Christian ethics. This ethic is based on being obedient to the will and laws of God. With that, the human being would reach true life, which is eternal salvation. Types of ethics
On the other hand, modern ethics was centered on subjectivity, that is, on the individual. In modern ethics, it is the individual who makes his own choices and becomes responsible for his own actions.
Contemporary ethics deals with the capacity of human beings to make adequate choices to lead their own lives, in the social environment.
In contemporary ethics, existentialism stands out, where man is responsible for his own attitudes and his happiness and it is he who produces his own existence. Types of ethics
What are the differences between Ethics and Morals
Ethics and morals are related themes, but they are different . While morality is the set of rules and norms established in society, ethics is the reflection and understanding of the principles that underlie morality.
The moral is related to norms, customs or cultural commandments, family and religious. Ethics , on the other hand , seeks to base the way of living through thought and the principles that guide human behavior.
An example of the difference between ethics and morals is the female vote in Brazil. Until 1934, it was morally incorrect for women to be allowed to vote. In other words, it was a norm to be followed.
It was necessary for women to think about the principles that guided this rule/norm, whether they were fair or unfair, right or wrong, and contradict the current model. Types of ethics
Based on this ethical reflection , the right to vote for women in Brazil was allowed under the Vargas government.
Examples of ethical conduct
There are many examples of ethics, as it contemplates not only our individual conduct, but also in society. Some common examples are:
- Do not harm people in the work environment;
- Have religious tolerance for different cults, rituals and beliefs;
- Don’t get hold of what doesn’t belong to you;
- Do not throw garbage on the street;
- Do not smoke indoors; Types of ethics