Climate is the set of weather conditions that identify a region . These are the characteristics that define an environment, such as the temperature of the seasons, amount of rain, wind, species of vegetation and animals. There are ten types of climate in the world: temperate, equatorial, tropical, subtropical, Mediterranean, cold, mountain cold, polar, semi-arid and desert. Types of weather
The temperate climate is characterized by having the four seasons well defined. In the summer period temperatures are high (averages of 18 degrees) and in winter they are low (with maximums around 5 degrees).
Autumn has milder temperatures compared to winter and spring has warmer temperatures which prepare for the arrival of summer. The rains are well distributed throughout the year and can reach 2000 millimeters per year.
Flora and fauna
The flora of the temperate climate is mainly composed of tall trees, such as the araucarias, which form the temperate forests . There are also areas of plains, with a kind of low vegetation called prairie.
In the temperate forest, during autumn, the leaves of the trees change color, leaving the landscape in reddish and yellowish tones. Types of weather
As the seasons of the year are well defined, the fauna of the temperate climate is quite diverse. Some animals that represent the fauna of the temperate climate are possums, owls, wolves, wild boars and bats.
the temperate climate occurs in the southern region of the country, which covers the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.
It is also the climate of parts of Argentina and Australia, as well as many countries in Europe and Asia.
The equatorial climate has high temperatures and high humidity throughout the year, with heavy rainfall in all seasons. It is common for the amount of rain to exceed 2000 millimeters per year. Types of weather
In addition, the thermal amplitude is small, that is, the difference between maximum and minimum temperatures is small. The annual average is around 26 degrees, with lows of 18 degrees and highs of 35.
Flora and fauna
The equatorial forest is the biome that best represents this climate, formed mainly by diverse vegetation with large trees. The species typical of the equatorial forest are well adapted to humid environments.
The soil is equally moist, formed by layers of debris from the decomposition process of animals, leaves from trees and plants.
The fauna of the equatorial climate is of animals well adapted to the humid environments of the forests, such as frogs, monkeys, toucan parrots, jaguars and a wide variety of insects. Types of weather
The equatorial climate is characteristic of the places closest to the Equator and covers some regions of all continents, such as Congo, Uganda, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Colombia, Malaysia and Indonesia and Australia.
In the tropical climate there are not many differences between the seasons. Therefore, the temperature is also not very variable and the averages are high, around 20 degrees.
Although the seasons are not well defined, the tropical climate has two seasons that differ in terms of the amount of rain: a very dry period (dry tropical climate) and a rainy period (humid tropical climate). The amount of rain can reach 3000 millimeters in a year. Types of weather
Flora and fauna
The tropical climate has two predominant types of vegetation, which vary according to the region and amount of local humidity. The vegetation can be drier – called savannah – or typical of wetter climates such as the Amazon Rainforest .
This climate has a diversity of animals, such as fish, birds, jaguars, toucans, macaws, monkeys, sloths and insects.
In the world, the tropical climate occurs in regions of Ecuador, Peru, Costa Rica, Cuba, Venezuela, Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Madagascar, Angola, Congo and Kenya.
The subtropical climate has some similarities with the tropical one. It has four well-defined seasons, with a dry summer with high temperatures and a dry winter with low temperatures. The annual temperature is 20 degrees.
The amount of rain is well distributed throughout the year and does not usually exceed the average of 1000 millimeters per year. Types of weather
Flora and fauna
The vegetation is formed by tall trees and the subtropical forests can have different vegetation, according to the region and with the local rainfall index, which also influences the type of vegetation found.
Araucaria forests are typical, mainly in the higher areas, and bamboo also grows in some regions. In other regions, smaller species such as herbs and mosses can be found.
In Rio Grande do Sul and in parts of Uruguay and Argentina, this climate is represented by the Pampa, formed by small shrubs and creeping species.
The subtropical fauna is quite diverse and is home to species such as frogs, jaguars, alligators, snakes, fish, anteaters, capybaras and cattle.
it occurs mainly in the southern states of the country and also in part of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul.
Outside the country, it is also typical of countries such as Uruguay, Argentina, Mexico, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Israel, India, New Zealand and Australia. Types of weather
5. Mediterranean (Mediterranean)
The Mediterranean climate is characterized by seasons with widely varying temperatures and poorly distributed rainfall during the months, with annual averages of approximately 1000 millimeters.
Summers are quite hot and dry, with average temperatures of 20 degrees. Winter is very rainy, with low temperatures that can reach 1 degree in some places.
In the regions closest to the sea, the humidity levels are quite high, the annual average is between 70% and 80%.
Flora and fauna
The vegetation of the Mediterranean climate is represented by Mediterranean forests and species resistant to the heat and low humidity of the Mediterranean summer. It is composed of small trees or low-growing species, such as olive trees, vines, lavender and cedar. Types of weather
Typical animals of this climate are: reptiles, deer, foxes, hares, squirrels, owls, snakes and rabbits. There is also a great diversity of birds and insects.
The Mediterranean climate occurs in the regions that lie between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. It predominates in places bordering the Mediterranean Sea, mainly in North Africa and southern Europe. Morocco, Spain, Italy, Croatia, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Algeria and Tunisia are some countries with a Mediterranean climate.
6. Cold (subpolar)
The cold climate is characterized by two well-defined seasons during the year: summer and winter. Summer is usually mild, with low temperatures that do not usually exceed the average of 10 degrees.
Winter is very cold and temperatures easily reach below zero and so the formation of snow is common.
Rainfall is not very frequent and normally does not exceed 1000 millimeters throughout the year.
Flora and fauna
The most typical vegetation of the cold climate are conifers, tall species that are very resistant to the cold. The forest in this region is called boreal or alpine . Types of weather
As temperatures are very low, the diversity of vegetation is lower, as few species are resistant to long and harsh winters.
The subpolar climate occurs only in the most extreme regions, in locations close to the Arctic Circle. Countries such as Finland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Greenland have this climate and some regions of Canada, the United States (Alaska) and Russia.
7. Mountain Cold
This type of climate is characterized by great variation between minimum and maximum temperatures. The variation in temperatures is governed by altitude, temperatures are lower in areas with higher altitude.
In winter, the formation of snow always happens and the recorded temperatures are negative. In the higher regions the snow tends not to melt all year round, regardless of the temperature. Types of weather
Normally the amount of rain does not exceed 1500 millimeters per year.
Flora and fauna
As in other cold regions, in this region the vegetation is basically composed of trees resistant to intense cold (such as conifers) and low and humid vegetation (such as mosses).
The higher the altitude, the smaller the amount of vegetation found and in the higher regions the vegetation does not exist.
Some animals that are adapted to high altitudes and the cold are deer, bears, llamas and snow leopards. Llamas originate from the Andes and leopards from the Asian continent.
The cold mountain climate is typical of mountainous regions, where altitudes are higher. It occurs in some European, Asian, South American countries and in part of the United States. Swiss Alps, Himalayas, Pyrenees and the Andes are cold mountain regions. Types of weather
The most striking feature of the polar climate is the extremely low temperatures . In the winter period, the average temperature is minus 30 degrees, which can be even lower at times.
In summer, temperatures are also low, usually no more than 5 degrees.
Rain is very scarce in the polar climate and annual averages do not usually exceed the 150 millimeter mark.
The polar climate occurs in regions that are located in the Arctic Circle, such as Alaska, Greenland and Antarctica.
The semi-arid climate has high temperatures and low humidity, with a thermal sensation of heat and dry air. The thermal variation is not very big and the average temperatures are around 28 degrees.
Rainfall rates are low and not uniform throughout the year, being more common in the first semester. The average rainfall does not usually exceed 750 millimeters per year. the rains are more abundant when compared to other countries with the same climate. Types of weather
Flora and fauna
The typical semi-arid vegetation comprises areas of Cerrado and Caatinga. The trees are small and the vegetation is poorly developed, due to the absence of rain and excessive heat. Cacti and grasses are species found in these regions.
The soil of semi-arid areas also suffers the consequences of the climate and therefore is not rich in nutrients, that is, it is not fertile for agriculture.
The fauna is formed by animals well adapted to the climate, such as some species of amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Frogs, snakes, jaguars, deer, monkeys and wolves are some of the animals that live in the semi-arid climate.
The semi-arid climate is common in areas with high temperatures throughout the year or in regions with well-defined winters and summers. it mainly covers the Northeast region, more common in part of Piauí, Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe and Rio Grande do Norte. Types of weather
It also occurs in some areas of North America and some countries in South America and Africa.
The desert climate is characterized by great thermal amplitude, that is, a lot of difference between the minimum and maximum temperatures. Heat has very high temperatures and cold has very low temperatures.
The thermal amplitude can happen in the same day, with high temperatures during the day and excessively low temperatures during the night. On the same day temperatures can vary up to 45 degrees.
The pluviometric index is quite low and the annual averages of rain do not exceed 250 millimeters during a year. As a result, the relative humidity of the air is also very low, being less than 10% during most of the year.
Flora and fauna
The desert climate has little variety of vegetation, since the climate is not favorable to plant development. Few species are adapted to survive in conditions as variable as these, with cacti and small shrubs being the most common types.
The soil is poor in nutrients and quite dry, due to the heat and humidity levels, which are very low. Therefore, sandy soil is not fertile. Types of weather
The fauna is also not diverse, since there are few animals adapted to this climate. Insects and some types of reptiles are animals that can survive in the desert climate.
This climate occurs in regions close to the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, as part of Africa, Asia, the United States, Chile, Peru and Australia. Sahara Desert, Namibia and Atacama are some examples of this type of climate.