In this article you will find an explanation about the general properties of matter . We will see how, these have to do with the physical and chemical characteristics of bodies or objects. You will find a summary of what each of these properties consists of, and examples of each of them. What are the 7 properties of matter?
What is matter?
Before talking about the general properties of matter, let’s try to explain what matter is. This is the main component of bodies (that is, of physical objects); it is the substance that makes up these objects . It can be of different forms, and undergo different changes.
Matter has a series of properties, both physical and chemical, that can be perceived through our senses. At the chemical level, matter can appear in three different states: liquid, solid or gaseous.
General properties of matter
What are the general properties of matter? They are those characteristics of it, which are related to its physical properties, such as the weight of objects, their volume, size, length … as well as its chemical properties, through which matter itself modifies its composition .
The first of the general properties of matter that we are going to talk about is volume. Volume is the amount of three-dimensional space that encloses a closed surface ; it is about the space that a body occupies (or the space it contains). What are the 7 properties of matter?
This space has three dimensions: height, width, and length. The unit of measurement of volume, according to the SI (International System), is the cubic meter, which is expressed by m3. An example of volume can be found in books; its volume is equal to its length x width x thickness.
Weight, another property of matter; It consists of the gravitational force that acts on a body . At the mathematical level, the weight is equal to: Fg (gravitational force) = m (mass) xg (acceleration of gravity). (Note: the acceleration of gravity = 9.8 m / sec2). In this case, its SI unit is the Newton, and it is expressed by: kg · m · sec-2.
When we talk about weight, we mean, although it sounds repetitive, how much an object weighs; heavy objects (for example a metal box) are more difficult to pick up or drag, than objects that weigh less (for example a pen). In this way, the more a body weighs, the greater the gravitational force acting on it.
To illustrate with an example, let’s think about a person’s weight; According to the aforementioned mathematical formula, its weight on the Moon will be much less than on Earth, and this is because the gravity on the Moon is less.
The next of the general properties of matter is mobility, which is related to the speed at which a body moves through the medium .
In physics, mobility has to do with the ease with which a charged particle moves through a solid material, under the influence of an electric field; thus, the greater the speed at which said particle moves, the greater will be this property, that is, its mobility.
An example of mobility; a tennis player will have greater mobility than a person who has never trained before, and this will help him to get to the balls. What are the 7 properties of matter?
Inertia, another of the general properties of matter, is a physical property of it; applied to a body, it implies that it remains at rest or moves at a speed that is constant and rectilinear . It is a passive property of matter.
To illustrate an example of inertia, let’s imagine riding in a car that is going at a certain speed. This accelerates abruptly; the people inside, as well as us, will “get hooked” on the seats of the vehicle, due to the inertia, which makes the body try to maintain the original speed of the people.
If, on the other hand, the car brakes abruptly, the people inside the vehicle will move to the front (it is for this reason that the seat belt is essential for road safety).
Porosity is that property of bodies that are full of small holes ; This characteristic allows liquid or gaseous substances to circulate through solid state bodies. Thus, bodies or objects that have pores (porosity) are permeable.
An example of an object that has porosity is a strainer (a kitchen utensil), which we use to filter liquids and remove particles that we do not want (or that we want to concentrate).
6. Hardness (impenetrability)
Hardness is that property that some objects have of resisting the penetration of a load . Another definition of hardness is “the resistance of a body to being scratched.” For example, a diamond is extremely hard, which is why it is very difficult (or impossible) to grate. What are the 7 properties of matter?
This property of matter is measured from a scale, called the Mohs Scale, which is based on the scratching of one mineral by another. This scale ranges from 1 to 10, with 1 being talc (the least hard material), and 10 being diamond (the hardest material).
Elasticity is a physical property of matter; It implies that an elastic body is stretched or deformed, due to a force exerted on it. Elastic bodies can exert a force contrary to the force that deforms them ; furthermore, they can reestablish their original shape if the force exerted on them ceases. The SI unit for elasticity is the pascal (Pa).
An example of elasticity is a rubber that stretches; If this force is not exerted, the rubber recovers its original state and shape (that is, elasticity). In other words; elasticity implies that a body recovers its original shape when force is no longer applied to it.
Divisibility implies that a body can be divided into exactly equal parts ; the result of this property is an exact and measurable result.
An example of divisibility is found in the day to day; Let’s imagine that we have to divide a cake into eight equal parts, or a 1L juice to distribute among 5 people. Severability is the property that is part of these processes. What are the 7 properties of matter?
The last of the general properties of matter is mass; mass measures the amount of matter that a certain substance has (regardless of its location in space). Thus, this property is not influenced by the force of gravity; nor does it depend on the shape of the body or object in question.
In physics, we understand the mass of a body as the “resistance it offers to change its condition of rest”, or the constant speed at which it moves. Its SI unit is the kilogram, expressed as Kg.
To illustrate this property, imagine having to push a shopping truck; we will have to push harder if this truck is full than if it is empty.