The social sciences are branches of science that study society and human behavior. These sciences analyze and treat different aspects of human beings and of various groups in society. What are the branches of Sociology?
Sociology is one of the social sciences, and its primary objective is the scientific study of the structure and functioning of human society or regional population. Its object of study is social activity and the phenomena produced by it, framed in the historical-cultural context in which they develop.
There are many and very varied interdisciplinary research techniques that this branch of science uses for the analysis and interpretation of the causes, meanings and cultural influences that generate the birth or appearance of new behaviors in the human being, when it is in social coexistence (in a shared space and time). Such causes and meanings are analyzed from different theoretical perspectives.
The origins of sociological reasoning are located in ancient Greece, in times before philosophers of the stature of Plato. But it is not limited to this nation, since throughout history evidence of sociological reasoning can be found in the Asian and African continents at different times.
Research and study methods
Sociological science applies research concepts and techniques in order to collect data and process it in order to draw conclusions about social facts. What are the branches of Sociology?
In general, the analysis begins with the establishment of a prediction of the future behavior of the events. In this initial stage, much of the effort is dedicated to proposing theories and critiquing social events, to later build a hypothetical model that must be tested or discarded through field work.
This approach requires a deep understanding of human behavior. Its objective is not to quantify, but to explain the different reasons behind the behaviors . The questions that this research method answers are why? and how? a decision is made. And for this, it uses relatively small samples such as classrooms.
This method is based on the use of statistics on parameters, variables or characteristics that can be measured in numerical values, but that must be described to make it easier to search for possible relationships through statistical analysis. This type of research answers questions of the type: which? Where? and when?
Through this method, two or more phenomena are compared and the correlation that exists between them is studied.
Different approaches to sociological study
According to the opinion of some sociologists and thinkers, such as David Emile Durkheim, they propose a division of sociology into three areas: What are the branches of Sociology?
- Social morphology , which covers geographic aspects of the population such as density, distribution and employment, among others.
- Social physiology , related to aspects such as religion, laws, morals, economics and politics, each of which could be the object of study of a special discipline.
- General sociology , which encompasses general social laws that could be derived from specialized social processes.
But there are other approaches when it comes to the division of sociology, as is the case of the sociologist Pitirim Sorokin, who divides sociological thought into four branches:
- Cosmo Sociology , which proposes a unifying paradigm, which postulates that ” everything that exists has life, is connected and follows a natural order … “, and that under these models human processes can be studied and understood.
- Bio sociology , which studies the groups of living beings, both of animal and plant origin.
- General sociology , which is related to the study of the properties that are common to all social and cultural phenomena of a group of people.
- Special Sociologies , which focuses on specific socio-cultural phenomena that are selected for more detailed study.
There are other approaches, as is to be expected, but they all aim to find expeditious ways to go into more detail in the study of social relations. What are the branches of Sociology?
13 branches of sociology
Sociology is a broad and vast discipline, which, depending on its practical application, offers a certain number of study areas. These areas are known as branches of sociology , which allow to specialize the study according to the social object on which they focus.
1. THEORETICAL SOCIOLOGY
His study includes theories of all sizes related to social behavior , such as the theory of ” economic determinism “, or the theory of ” class struggle ” to name just a few, postulated by sociologists of the stature of Karl Marx, Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Pitirim Sorokin and many others.
2. HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY
Historical sociology focuses on the study of all aspects of any historical event. Study everything behind any social event . How and when different social groups and organizations originated. What are the branches of Sociology?
3. SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE
This is an emerging branch of sociology that indicates that our knowledge is the product of social phenomena. His study focuses on the influence of culture and political and social norms on thought and how it influences thought in society . Its object of study is everyday life.
4. SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION
This branch of sociology studies the structure of religion in a social system, since there is no society free of such influence. It analyzes the social behavior of human beings, as well as the religious constitution and its role in society . It tries to explain the influence that religions have on the collective behavior of human beings and vice versa.
5. ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY
Economic sociology is based on the sociological analysis of economic phenomena. Study the production, distribution, consumption and exchange of goods and services. It also studies the economic activities of the society in which the focus is given by socio-cultural factors. What are the branches of Sociology?
6. RURAL SOCIOLOGY
This science is dedicated to the study of the social structure of rural areas and their conflicts. Considering that the behavior patterns of the rural population are different from those of the cities, rural sociology studies the rural population scientifically in aspects such as beliefs, culture, traditions and norms, among others.
7. URBAN SOCIOLOGY
It is about the study of social life and human interactions framed in metropolitan areas. This science studies the structures, processes, changes and problems of an urban area. His study makes significant contributions to urban planning and the design of its policies. It also studies the pathologies of people in cities such as discrimination, corruption, theft, unemployment, prostitution and environmental pollution, among others.
8. POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY
Political sociology is an interdisciplinary science, in which political science meets sociology, to study power and the intersection between personality, social structure and politics. This science studies the different political ideologies, their origins, development and functions . In this study, the different political parties are considered social institutions. Their activities and behaviors are studied as part of the social system.
9. DEMOGRAPHIC SOCIOLOGY
Sociology is based on the study of societies. And societies are made up of people. Demographic sociology is responsible for determining the population rate. It deals with every aspect related to the population, such as the number of people residing in a particular area, its situation, density, distribution, as well as the variations in the number of people in a population over time. What are the branches of Sociology?
10. INDUSTRIAL SOCIOLOGY
This branch of sociology is responsible for the study of human relations with industry. It studies the different industrial organizations and institutions , as well as the interrelationships and links with other institutions in society. It also studies the interrelation of industrial institutions with various other aspects of human life such as culture, beliefs, religions and lifestyles. The employment of people is directly related to this branch of science.
11. FAMILY SOCIOLOGY
Families make up the base structure of society. Different families offer different values and principles to their children. In family sociology, different parenting methods are studied in families to understand how different family nuclei can induce changes in children.
12. SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
The sociology of education is dedicated to the study of different educational institutions in various places with the purpose of studying how education changes a person’s perspective . It also studies how the employment rate increases after educational activities. What are the branches of Sociology?
13. LEGAL SOCIOLOGY
It is the branch of sociology that studies the origin, differentiation, application, transformation, problems, efficacy and everything related to law and society. It also studies the law as a norm and as an institution, embodied through the State and its operation.
Auxiliary Sciences of Sociology
As we have indicated at the beginning, sociology is one of several social sciences. And it relies on other social sciences for its study.
Here are some auxiliary social sciences to sociology.
- The story , which supports the study of past societies.
- The geography , as support to reveal the space and conditions where the characteristic phenomena of society occur.
- The ethics , as an aid in the study of manners, morals and religions of societies.
- The anthropology as a support in the study of the physical evolution of man and his cultural reproduction.
- The psychology as support in the study of behavior and individual behavior of humans.
- The policy , to help understand the different forms of government and social forms to conform States.
- The economy , as a support to know the organization of the means of production, the formulas for the exchange of goods and services, and the distribution of wealth.
- The demographics , which provides information on growth and distribution of population humana.La philosophy , as support in the study of the forms of thought, discovery and interaction of an individual with the world, starting with himself. What are the branches of Sociology?