What did the adams-onís treaty do/background/negotiation

Treaty of Adams – Onís (1821)

The Adams-Onís Treaty clearly  showed the movement or accommodation of the powers that dominated the world for the nineteenth century, the French, British, Spanish influence and the growing North American nation. What did the adams-onís treaty do?

Truly the nations for millennia have distributed the lands and the power and have also developed cultures, some with great and long influence in the world, others ephemeral and fleeting but that left their mark.

Spain and France were losing their power and influence in the colonial world when this treaty was signed, Spain sent its plenipotentiary Luis de Onís to close the business on behalf of Fernando VII and the United States does so with the Minister of State John Quincy Adams, who later would be president of the nation. What was behind this treaty or business that seemed so advantageous to a young nation like the United States? What consequences did this treaty bring, and what did it consist of? We invite you to read this interesting summary. What did the adams-onís treaty do?

Background to the Adams-Onís Treaty

To speak of the Adams-Onís treaty is to relate the expansion of the United States and the decline of the other power where the sun did not set, Spain . More than two-thirds of the territory that today forms the United States belonged to Spain, to the west Oregon, to the southeast Florida and Louisiana, and to the south Texas, it was all Spanish rule. Further north the English and the French dominated; and little by little through wars, expansionism, and treaties, the new American nation was expanding its territory to occupy almost the entire North American continent.

It is also necessary to mention among the antecedents of the Adams-Onís treaty the situation that Spain was going through. Recall that the king of Spain was Ferdinand VII, but it was Napoleon Bonaparte’s time and France was the dominant European nation with an army that was said to be the best in the world and invincible , so Napoleon, a great strategist, began to exercise his dominion and managed to keep Fernando VII as a guest in France, who was nothing but a prisoner while he and his brother José Bonaparte usurped the Spanish throne, so that Fernando VII was captive for about six years. What did the adams-onís treaty do?

When he returned to the throne in 1814, there had been many political movements in the Spanish colonies in America, the independence struggle in Mexico, the independence struggle in South America. In Spain the so-called parliamentary monarchy was in process that had powerful defenders , so this scenario greatly benefited the fledgling American nation.

What did the adams-onís treaty do

The nations and their territories in America were formed as the most powerful colonized the world throughout this land, and as the colonies continued to develop and identities emerged that began to love their land, the independence struggles. The Adams-Onís Treaty arises as a negotiation mechanism between two nations that chose to agree instead of engaging in a war that would greatly harm both of them , one was in clear growth and the other in decline and with more territory than they could. control and attend. What did the adams-onís treaty do?

Let’s say that the initiative or pressure was exerted by the young nation, which saw the opportunity to annex territories, either by buying, negotiating or even invading like Texas.

The negotiation or treaty consisted of setting borders and giving up territories . The new border between the United States and Spain was set at the 42nd parallel so that Spain ceded its territories from there to the north, the great extension that was Spanish Louisiana and also included the two Floridas. Spain closed its deal, remaining as sovereign of Texas within the viceroyalty of New Spain . Analysts really agree that from a certain point of view the United States got the best part in terms of territory and prestige, but Spain also benefited, since it stayed with Texas, delivering a Florida that it no longer had for sure. What did the adams-onís treaty do?

Complicated territory

The problem Spain faced in Florida was that it claimed the territory, and had some outposts in it, but it was not resolved. And the region was not being governed in any sense of the word. North American settlers were invading its borders, essentially occupying Spanish lands, and conflicts continued to arise.

Runaway slaves also crossed into Spanish territory, and at that time US troops ventured into Spanish territory under the pretext of hunting runaway slaves. Creating further complications, Indians living on Spanish territory ventured into American territory and raided settlements, sometimes killing residents. The constant problems along the border could at some point lead to open conflict.

In 1818 Andrew Jackson, the hero of the Battle of New Orleans three years earlier, led a military expedition to Florida. His actions were highly controversial in Washington, as government officials felt that he had gone far beyond their orders, especially when he executed two British subjects whom he considered spies. What did the adams-onís treaty do?

Negotiation of the Treaty

It seemed obvious to the leaders of Spain and the United States that the Americans would eventually take possession of Florida. So the Spanish ambassador in Washington, Luis de Onis, had received from his government all the power to make the best possible deal. He met with John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State to President Monroe.

Negotiations had been interrupted and nearly ended when the 1818 military expedition led by Andrew Jackson ventured into Florida. But the troubles caused by Andrew Jackson may have been helpful to the American cause.

Jackson’s ambition and aggressive behavior undoubtedly reinforced the Spanish fear that the Americans might sooner or later enter the territory of Spain. Jackson’s American troops had been able to enter Spanish territory at will. Spain was beset by other problems. And he didn’t want to station troops, who would have to be supplied, in remote parts of Florida to defend against future US invasions. What did the adams-onís treaty do?

There was no escaping that if American soldiers could march to Florida and just seize it, Spain could do nothing. So Onis figured he could also do without the Florida problem entirely while addressing the question of borders along the western edge of the Louisiana Territory.

Negotiations resumed and were fruitful. And Adams and Onis signed their agreement on February 22, 1819. A compromise boundary was established between the United States and Spanish territory, and the United States waived claims to Texas in exchange for Spain waiving any claim to territory. in the Pacific Northwest.

The treaty, after being ratified by both governments, entered into force on February 22, 1821. The treaty was finally followed by other treaties that essentially confirmed the limits established in 1821.

An immediate result of the treaty was that it reduced tensions with Spain, and made the probability of another war seem remote. So the United States military budget could be cut and the size of the United States Army reduced in the 1820s. What did the adams-onís treaty do?

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