In all human societies there are two great axes that determine the development of a community: the economy and politics . From a political and economic point of view, several models were put into practice: the slave system , the feudal system and the mixed economy arising from capitalism and socialist doctrine. One of the most particular systems was the autarchy.
It is characterized by the following features: a clear nationalist component, an isolated political regime rejected by the international community and an economy contrary to the free circulation of goods and capital.
Under normal conditions, no country chooses an autarchic system
This model of society is related to totalitarian regimes or countries isolated from the international scene.
The main premise of an autarchic country is the following: all the resources used are extracted in favor of the country. Obviously, this has a consequence of great impact for the economy with the disappearance of foreign trade. In other words, exports and imports are no longer part of a country’s economy.
On occasion, some countries have decided to take some sort of autarchic measure, such as the imposition of tariffs and strict border controls to block the entry of foreign products.
The case of Espana after the civil war (1936 – 1939)
In the post-war period there was food shortage and this favored the black market, also called estraperlo in Spain. The state imposed food rationing to ensure the population’s survival. On the other hand, during those years there was a long period of drought.
In this context, the country was politically isolated because the regime’s legitimacy was not recognized internationally. An autarchic system was promoted from the state itself, which allowed for economic self-sufficiency and, in this way, there was no economic dependence on other countries.
The autarchy on a human scale
Although this term is commonly applied to economic policy in some countries, it should be noted that autarchy is also used to refer to certain human situations. In this way, the councilor is an independent person who does not need anyone’s help. This individual isolates himself and avoids contact with other people as much as possible.