An interdisciplinary science
As its name implies, climatology is the scientific discipline that studies the climate, that is, atmospheric time. Climatology has a multidisciplinary character because it presents knowledge from other sciences. In this way, the study of climate depends on other scientific knowledge, for example, the solar rotation that directly affects the climate. Secondly, astrophysics studies the functioning of the different stars in the universe , more particularly the sun, which is the most important factor when studying any change in climate.
On the other hand, knowledge of physics also affects climatic conditions. Meteorology is another discipline that belongs to climatology. Still, there are other sciences linked to climate, for example, thermodynamics studies the transmission of energy and hydrology focuses on the water cycle.
Climatology and Meteorology
These two terms are often confused. Meteorological studies are mainly based on the study of climatic data that affect the present, in this way it is possible to predict the weather that will be tomorrow or next week. On the contrary, climatological studies are based on what has already happened (the minimum unit of time used is the month).
Meteorologists use measuring instruments to assess atmospheric pressure, temperature , humidity and wind. In the field of climatology, three measuring instruments are mainly used:
1) the heliograph that measures the hours of the sun and radiation;
2) mercury or alcohol thermometers that record temperatures;
3) the thermograph that serves to record the changes taking place in atmospheric time.
The human, economic and social development of a region is studied by geologists. To carry out its analysis, the influence of climate on the territory must be taken into account. Geographical climatology deals with the study of all the climatic data that determine the development of an area: the level of rainfall, the levels of contamination and all atmospheric phenomena. We cannot forget that some sectors of the economy depend directly on climatology and, in a very special way, on agriculture.