We are surrounded by all kinds of code . In our address figure a zip code to identify an object consumer use barcodes and the world computer manage the access codes to be identified correctly. When we refer to living beings, they also have their own identification system , the genetic code.
What does it consist of?
The genetic code is a rule that explains how to transform a sequence of nucleic acids into one of amino acids. This code has a universal dimension, as it identifies any living organism (a plant, animal or human being).
In relation to its functioning, the general idea of the genetic code starts with a strand of DNA from every three nucleic acids. So for every three letters that symbolize a nucleic acid, each of them has an amino acid. Each group of three nucleic acids can have any one of the four nitrogenous bases existing in the cell nucleus (adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine) and, therefore, there are 64 possible combinations. Genetic Code
The deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA of a cell forms a molecule with different atoms. In the case of DNA, atoms combine to create the structure of a long spiral staircase. This mechanism is explained by the intervention of amino acids that when they combine together create proteins. Thus, amino acids form proteins and these form cells which, in turn, form organs or tissues of different living beings. For this process to be possible, a specific coding is needed ; from there, DNA is formed as a structure that organizes amino acids into specific shapes, then transforming them into proteins.
Knowledge of the genetic code of human beings is an advance with some associated risks
A person ‘s genetic code is made up of 6 million letters. These DNA combinations are what make us unique as individuals. The complete sequence of the complete human genome can be deciphered practically in its entirety and this circumstance has revolutionary consequences for the treatment of certain hereditary diseases.
It should be noted that some diseases are transmitted through the genetic material of the parents and if this code can be manipulated, the offspring will not have to suffer what was written in their DNA code. With this type of advance, many lives have already been saved, as well as very serious illnesses were treated in advance.
Despite the advantages of knowing our genetic code, there are some doubts about its potential applications.
First, there is an ethical dilemma regarding respect for the personal privacy of human beings and whether or not it is legitimate to manipulate this type of information . On the other hand, health insurance companies may use this information to discriminate against some individuals because of their genetic information.