Each ecosystem is formed by a set of autochthonous species, that is, they are animals or plants that live in harmony in a certain environment . However, when a species is introduced into a new ecosystem, it is likely to have an invasive effect.
In scientific terminology, an invasive species is called an allochthonous species. This phenomenon has a planetary reach and can manifest itself in any type of natural habitat. Invasive Species
Invasive species without natural enemies can become very harmful pests
All ecosystems need to be kept stably. If for some reason an invasive species is introduced into a habitat, the natural balance is weakened and the ecosystem seriously threatened.
The zebra mussel is a species native to the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, where its natural enemies keep the population of these animals stable. However, their larvae can adhere to boats and thus reach other seas. When this occurs, potentially harmful effects invade the new natural area. Invasive Species
Some beavers, eg Coypus, are native to South America, but have been introduced into other ecosystems on the European continent . This animal is harmful to the balance of aquatic vegetation in marshlands, as it impedes the development of the reed plant (this plant is essential for the protection of some migratory birds).
European settlers introduced exotic species to the American continent. Thus, rats, hares and rabbits were introduced into some ecosystems and still suffer the consequences
For example, the goats introduced on the island of Juan Fernández, Chile, come from a European domestic breed introduced on the island in the 15th century, with the purpose of feeding navigators (these animals altered the native vegetation of this place ). Invasive Species
The examples mentioned remind us that any exotic animal without natural enemies can alter the balance of an ecosystem. Most of the time, the introduction of a living being in a new habitat is carried out by ignorance, sometimes intentionally and sometimes accidentally.
Either way, this type of behavior is reckless and very harmful.
The phenomenon of invasion brings several consequences, such as changing the environment, new mechanisms of competition with native species or possible invasions of water pipe infrastructure.
It basically generates an ecological and economic disaster. The damage caused by this phenomenon affects farms, plantations, natural reserves and forestry activities.