The cell is the smallest unit of living matter capable of having all the functions necessary for the survival of an organism. All living beings are made up of cells, and their shapes, sizes and functions are very different. However, they all have in common the presence of the cell membrane, cytoplasm and genetic material. Plant Cell
General characteristics of plant cells
Plant cells belong to the family of eukaryotic cells and there is a series of equality between the structures of animal cells: the presence of a nucleus that contains DNA, genetic information and also a cytoplasm that lines the nuclear membrane. On the other hand, there are organelles, internal structures that line the membranes.
However, plant cells have some unique quirks. In this sense, there is a special component in the cell wall, cellulose, which provides firmness to the plant cell. Below the cell wall is the cytoplasmic membrane, which serves as a protective element for the cell and is mainly composed of lipids.
In plant cells also appear chloroplasts, structures responsible for photosynthesis, that is, the biological process by which light energy is used for plants to generate chemical energy . Chloroplasts have a pigment (chlorophyll) responsible for photosynthesis. Plant Cell
Another structure of the plant cell is the vacuole, which contains water and other liquids. Mitochondria participate in cellular respiration processes to obtain energy and ribosomes are involved with the synthesis or production of proteins, finally, the endoplastic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus should be highlighted. This is the general structure of any plant cell.
When it comes to a set or a conglomerate of plant cells, we speak of plant tissue
In plants, the different types of tissues are differentiated by the shape of their cells, by their location and by the functions they perform. The meristematic tissue is responsible for plant growth and the formation of leaves and branches. Epidermal tissues are located on the surface of the plant and its cells have protective and defense functions.
The parenchyma tissue is responsible for storing nutritive substances (eg, starches and sugars) and for depositing chlorophyll and water. In summary , each tissue has its function , which can be protective, conductive or responsible for plant growth. Plant Cell
The discipline that studies plant cells and tissues is plant histology. This area of knowledge began to develop in the 17th century with the appearance of the first microscopes.