Renaissance philosophy began around the 15th and 16th centuries in Europe. Renaissance philosophy is understood as a transition period between the Middle Ages and the Modern Age.
The intellectual context of the Renaissance
There are several events that allow us to contextualize the Renaissance philosophy. First, the humanist current promotes the recovery of classical Greek culture, the term renaissance refers precisely to the new intellectual splendor inspired by the classical works of culture and science of the classical Greek period.
On the other hand, the Protestant Reformation establishes a fragmentation of religious power. At the same time, it should be noted that the discovery of the New World gave another picture of reality and the need to face new challenges, for example, in the area of navigation. The emergence of the bourgeoisie as a new social class established a renewal of cultural projects. And all this accompanied by a new technological tool, the press.
The main features of Renaissance philosophy
The return to the classics in the Renaissance has two aspects: the translation of texts that were forgotten for centuries and the recovery of Greek science, especially the contributions of Archimedes, Pythagoras and Euclid. This rebirth of the classical world went beyond interests in culture and science, as Renaissance philosophers tried to create an order based on the human being as the central axis (anthropocentrism) in opposition to medieval theocentrism.
The figure of God was no longer seen as the basis of all reality, as new approaches emerged. In this sense, Giordano Bruno defended a pantheism based on the infinity of the universe and Nicolau de Cusa dared to question the possibility of knowing the nature of God.
Renaissance philosophers have a critical attitude towards medieval intellectual doctrines, more particularly towards Aristotelianism which took over all scientific knowledge .
The heliocentric view of the universe defended by Copernicus and the new scientific method proposed by Francis Bacon are two essential questions in the Renaissance paradigm .
Renaissance ideals paved the way for philosophy in the modern age, in which human reason becomes independent of faith and structures science understood today.