The civilization of Ancient Greece excelled in disciplines such as Philosophy, Theatre, Mathematics and Architecture . In all these areas, new systems were created and in Architecture the term “order” refers to the style of each period. Three Greek Orders
The Greeks built stadiums for sporting competitions, theaters to represent comedies or tragedies, and temples to worship their gods. In the construction of the temples, three systems or orders were used: the Ionic, the Doric and the Corinthian.
It makes an impression of elegance and at the same time fragility and decorative richness. The most characteristic building is found on the island of Ephesus, more specifically in the temple dedicated to the goddess Artemis. It should be noted that the Ionic order is later than the Doric, as it appeared in the 6th century BC. Ç.
The column of this order has a base that rests on a type of step, the stilobath. The shaft rests on this base, which is circular in shape and is usually wider at the bottom than at the top. The shaft has a series of flutes that are separated by ribs. Three Greek Orders
The capital is formed by two rounded volutes and above them is the abacus. Obviously, the entire structure of the column serves to maintain the weight of the temple’s cornix and fronton.
It is the oldest of the three and its origins date back to the VII century; C. Its denomination refers to the Dorian people, who were the first to incorporate this architectural style. It is characterized by its sobriety and simplicity, as well as the idea of harmony .
The characteristic element of the Doric temple is the column. This is formed by three structures: a base, a shaft and a capital. In a stricter sense, the base is non-existent, since the shaft is directly supported on the last step that gives access to the temple’s precinct (this step is known by the term stilóbato, which, in turn, supports the lower steps or stereobots).
The shaft of the column is circular and has grooves with concave shapes, on the other hand, its size progressively decreases from the bottom to the top. Three Greek Orders
The Doric capital has three parts:
1) the abacus is a rectangular shape that supports the horizontal structure of the temple,
2) below the abacus is the horse, which has a convex shape,
3) the length of the shaft is the collar, also known as the astragalus.
This classic order is one of the most used and stands out for the beauty of its capital. Its origin goes back to the V century; C, in full classical period, like other orders, its main feature is found in the column. Three Greek Orders
The column stands out for its decoration, as it uses shapes similar to the two rows of acanthus leaves that overlap at the bottom and a curved abacus at the top. The shaft of the column is thinner than in the Ionic order and has angled flutes.